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Appendix M

Glossary of Hebrew Words in these Mitzvot

derived from the

Complete Jewish Bible


[A]  [B]  [C]  [D]  [E]  [F]  [G]  [H]  [I]  [J]  [K]  [L]  [M]  [N]  [O]  [P]  [Q]  [R]  [S]  [T]  [U]  [V]  [W]  [X]  [Y]  [Z] 

'Amora - Gomorrah
'Aved-N'go - Abed-Nego
Ach'av - Ahab
acharit-hayamim - latter (end of) days
Achlai - Ahlai
ADONAI-Tzva'ot - LORD of Hosts
ADONAI-Yir'eh - The Lord will see to it (provides)
Adoshem - a manufactured word to substitute for "ADONAI"
Aharon - Aaron
Aleinu - a prayer in the Siddur ("It is our duty")
aliyah - ascent (literal); also, ascending to the bimah; emigration to Israel
aliyot - plural of aliyah
Amidah - a prayer in the Siddur (also called the Sh'moneh Esreh)
Amoni - Ammonite
Aram - Armenia, Syria
Aravah - Plains
Aron Hakodesh - ark that houses Torah scroll
Asaf - Asaph
Ashkenazim - residents of middle Europe
Atzmon - Azmon
Avimelekh - Abimelech
Avigayil - Abigail
Aviv - the season of Spring (an agricultural reference)
Avot - fathers; also a tractate of the Talmud (see Pirke Avot)
Avraham - Abraham
Avram - Abram
Ayin - Ain
Azaryah - Azariah
Az'azel - the Passover scapegoat
B'liya'al - "Belial" in the HKJ; literal meaning: "worthlessness"; synonym for Satan
B'midbar - Book of Numbers (in the desert)
b'rakhah - blessing
B'rakhot - blessings; also a tractate of the Talmud
B'reshit - Book of Genesis (in the beginning)
B'rit Chadasha - New Covenant (sometimes meaning New Covenant Scriptures or New Testament)
b'rit milah - covenant circumcision (cutting)
Ba'al - Ugaritic reference to foreign gods
Ba'al-Zibbul - Beelzebub
Ba'al-Zibbul - Beelzebub
Bar - son (Aramaic)
Bar-Nabba - Barnabas
Bar/Bat Mitzvah - time of becoming accountable as an adult, and assuming adult responsibilities in the synagogue (literally: "Son/Daughter of Commandment")
Bar-Sabba - Barsabas
Bar-Talmai - son of Bartholomew
Bar-Timai (son of Timai) - Bartimaeus (son of Timaeus)
bat - daughter (Aramaic)
batei din - plural of beit din
Bava Metziah - a tractate of the Talmud
Bavel - Babylon
Bavli - Babylonian
Be'eroti - Berothite
Be'er-Sheva - Beersheba
beit din - see bet din
Beliya'al - Belial; one of the fallen angels who is now a demon
ben - son
Ben-Halfai - son of Alphaeus
Ben-Ya'akov - son of James/Jacob
Berotah - Berothah
bet din - Jewish court of law
Bet-Lechem - Bethlehem
Bil'am - Balaam
bimah - raised platform & table from which the Torah scroll is read
Binyamin - Benjamin
Birkat Cohanim - Priestly Blessing (Aaronic Benediction)
Birkat HaCohanim - see Birkat Cohanim
Birkat HaMazon - Grace after the meal (blessing over the food)
Chafetz Chayim - Rabbi Meir Kagan, aka Yisrael Meir HaKohen, writer, teacher & codifier of Jewish law
chalalah - a profaned woman
challah - a special kind of bread (also hallah)
chametz - also, spelled hametz; food that contains leaven or is otherwise unsuitable to be eaten at Passover or during the Feast of Unleavened Bread
charoset - sweet, pasty, gray-colored mixture containing apples, nuts, spices, etc., eaten at the Passover seder
chazan - cantor
chelev - forbidden fat (to eat)
chillul HaShem - Public or conspicuous misbehaviour that dsicredits or disgraces God
Chinuch - a commentator and codifier of mitzvot (also HaChinuch)
Chumash - Book that contains the Torah & Haftarah (traditionally related weekly readings from other parts of the Bible)
cohanim - priests (also kohanim)
cohanim g'dolim - high priests (also kohanim g'dolim)
cohen - priest (also kohen)
Cohen Gadol - High Priest (also Kohen Gadol)
Cohen HaGadol - the High Priest (also Kohen HaGadol)
Cretans - Cretians
D'varim - Book of Deuteronomy (words)
Dammesek - Damascus
dibeyr - used herein to mean "verbatim commandment"
dibrot - plural of dibeyr
Divrei-HaYamim Bet - Book of 2 Chronicles
dor l'dor - generation to generation
echad - composite "one"; also, "only"
Edomi - Edomite
Efrat - Efrathah
Efrayim - Ephraim
ekklesia - a Greek word meaning "body of believers" or "church"
El - God
El'azar - Eleazar, Lazarus
Eli - My God
Eliyahu - Elijah
El Shaddai - God Almighty
Eloheinu (Eloheynu) - our God
Elokeinu (Elokeynu) - a manufactured word to substitute for "Eloheinu (Eloheynu)"
Elohim - God
Elyon - the Most High
Emori - Amorites
Eretz - land
Eretz Yisrael - Land of Israel
erev - evening
erev Shabbat - Sabbath evening (after sundown on Friday)
g'rushah - a divorced woman
Gadi - Gadites
Galil - Galilee
galut - diaspora, dispersion of the Jewish people
Geichazi - Geihazi
Gei-Hinnom - Gehanna, Valley of Hinnom
Gemara - a component of the Talmud
ger - proselyte
gerim - plural of ger
get - a Jewish writ of divorce, aka bill of divorcement
gezeirah - a law promulgated to prevent violating a commandment of Torah
gid hanasheh - sinew of the thigh
Gid'on - Gideon
Gil'ad - Gilead (a person & a place)
Girgashi - Girgashites
Gitti - Gittite
Giy'ah - Gibeah
Goy - Gentile
Goyim - plural of Goy (Gentiles)
Goyishe - Gentile (adjective)
Ha'Elyon - the Most High
HaAretz - the Land (usually referring to the Land of Israel)
Haftarah - selections of books from the Nev'im & Ketuvim of the Tanakh that are traditionally read in the synagogue along with the Torah during services and as part of personal devotions
HaChinuch - a codifier and commentator mitzvot (also Chinuch)
HaG'dulah - Throne of the Majesty
halachah - law; body of Jewish law; legal interpretation of the Talmud
halachic - adjective referring to halachah
halachically - adverb referring to halachah
hallah - challah - a kind of bread
Hamat - Hamath
hametz - see chametz
Hanokh - Enoch
HaShem - substitute name for God (literally: "The Name")
Hatzar-Adar - Hazar Addar
Hatzar-'Einom - Hazar Enan
Hatzar-Hatikhon - Hazar Hatticon
Havah - Eve
Havdalah - separation (usually refers to a ceremony commemorating the end of the Sabbath and beginning of the work-week)
Havran - Hauran
Hefer - Hepher
Hetlon - Hethlon
Hevel - Abel
Hilchot Gedolot - a work by Simon Kairo published in the 8th Century
Hitti - Hittite(s)
Hivi - Hivite(s)
Horey - Horeb
Iyar - Second month on the biblical Jewish calendar; comes after Nisan
Iyov - Job, Book of Job
K'far-Nachum - Capernaum
K'hat - Kohathites
K'nizi - Kenizzites
K'riot - Kerioth, a town in the south of Judea
K'rov Yisrael - Gentiles who identify closely with the Jewish Community
K'rovei Yisrael - plural of K'rov Yisrael
Kadmoni - Kadmonites
Kal Nidre - see Kol Nidre
kal va-chomer - a Talmudic rule of hermeneutics (less to more)
Kanah - Cana (a place)
Karmel - Carmel (a place)
Kasdin - Chaldeans
kashering - making meat kosher by salting and soaking
kashrut - the practice of keeping kosher
kavanah - attitude of focussed intention of the heart in prayer
Kayin - Cain
Kedushah - A prayer in the Siddur that is imbedded in the Amidah
Kefa - Peter
kehilah - congregation, assembly, community
kehillah) - see kehilah
Kena'an - Canaan
Kena'ani - Canaanite(s)
Keni - Kenites
Ketuvim - Holy writings (a section of the Hebrew Scriptures)
khukah - statute, ordinance
Kiddush - a Jewish ceremony blessing God over wine
kiddushin - sanctification
Kinneret - Chinnereth
Kitvey B'rit Chadasha - New Covenant Scriptures (New Testament)
Kitzur Shulchan Aruch - abbreviated Code of Jewish Law
kodesh - holy
kohanim - priests (also cohanim)
kohanim g'dolim - high priests (also cohanim g'dolim)
Kohelet - Book of Ecclesiastes
kohen - priest (also cohen)
Kohen Gadol - High Priest (also Cohen Gadol)
Kohen HaGadol - the High Priest (also Cohen HaGadol)
kol - all
Kol Nidre - "All Vows"; a Yom Kippur liturgical declaration
kosher - ceremonially clean for eating, according to biblical or rabbinical standards
koshering - see kashering
L'mah sh'vaktani? - lama sabachthani? (Why have you deserted me?)
L'vanon - Lebanon
L'vi'im - Levites
lashon hara - evil or negative speech
Lavan - Laban
Lud - Lydda
lulav - (1) a palm branch; (2) three species of plants tied together, consisting of a palm branch, thick branches of trees, and river willows
m'chitzah - partition
M'lakhim Alef - Book of 1 Kings
M'nasheh - Manasseh
M'nashi - Manassites
M'ribot-Kadesh - Meribah by Kadesh
m'zuzah - scroll containing words of Torah attached to doorpost
m'zuzot - plural of m'zuzah
Machayim - land of the Mahavites
Machlah - Mahlah
Machlon - Mahlon
Magdalit - Magdalene
Maimonides - Moshe be Maimon, aka  Rambam (philosopher, theologian & codifier of Jewish law)
Makkoth - a tractate of Talmud
Malakhi - Book of Malachi
Malki-Tzedek - Melchizedek
mamzer - bastard
man - manna
Manoach - Manoah
maror - bitter herbs
Marta - Martha
Mattiyahu - Matthew
Meishakh - Meshach
Meir HaCohen, Yisroel - The "Chafetz Chaim" (writer, scholar, teacher, codifier of Jewish law)
Metushelach - Methuselah
mezuzah - see m'zuzah
mezuzot - see m'zuzot
Midyan - Midian (nation of the Midianites)
Mikhah - Book of Micah
Millkhah - Milcah
Minchah - Jewish afternoon service
Miryam - Miraim, Mary
Mishlei - Book of Proverbs
Mishna - alternative transliterated spelling of "Mishnah"
Mishnah - a component of the Talmud
Mishneh Torah - compilation of laws gleaned from both Scripture and Talmud
mishpat - judgment
mitzvah - commandment (either God's exact words or a restatement of them, e.g. Maimonides' "Sefer HaMitzvot"); in another context, an act of kindness or compassion
mitzah d'oraita - Commandment of Torah
mitzah d'rabbanan - rabbincal commandment
mitzvot - plural of mitzvah
mitzvot aseh - positive commandments
mitzvot lo ta'aseh - negative commandments
Mo'av - Moab
Mo'avi - Moabite
Modeh Ani - blessing of thankfulness said when awakening in the morning ("I am grateful")
mohel - covenant surgeon (circumciser)
Molekh - an idol image worshipped by the Ammonites (also spelled Molech)
Moshe - Moses
Motza'ei-Shabbat - Saturday night (time immediately following Shabbat)
Musaf - extra Jewish service on Shabbat afternoon
N'tilat-yadayim - unwashed hands
n'veilah - meat from an animal that dies of its own accord
Nachrai - Naharai
Natan - Nathan the prophet
Natzeret - Nazareth
Naval - Nabal
Nazir - Nazarite
Nechemyah - Nehemiah, Book of Nehemiah
Negev - South
Nev'im - Prophets, prophetic books of the Bible
neveilah - see n'veilah
niddah - impurity, uncleanness, a woman's menstruation
Nisan - The first month of the biblical Jewish calendar
Nissan - alternative spelling of Nisan
nissuin - consummation of marriage
No'ah - Noah
Noach - Noah
nudnik - pest (Yiddish)
Olam hazeh - this world, this age
omer - a measure of grain (associated with counting 50 days to Shavuot)
Oved - Obed
P'lishtim - Philistines
P'rizi - Perizzite(s)
P'rushim - Pharisees
parasha - weekly Torah reading (singular)
parashiyot (or parashot) - weekly Torah readings (plural)
parokhet - veil
Parush - Pharisee
Pekach - Pekah
Pesach - Passover
Pesachim - a tractate of the Talmud
Pidyon HaBen(im) - ceremony of redemption of the firstborn Israelite male (im - plural)
Pinchas - Phinehas
Pirke Avot - "Ethics of the Father" (a tractate of the Talmud
Pruzbul - a legal procedure to avoid releasing debts in a Sabbatical Year
Rachav - Rahab
Rambam - Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, aka Maimonides (philisopher, theologian & codifier of the Jewish law)
Ramot - Ramoth (a place)
Rav - Rabbi
Re'iveni - Reubenites
Refa'im - Rephaim
Refidim - Rephidim
Remalyah - Remaliah
responsum - a written reply by a rabbi or Talmudic scholar on a matter of Jewish law
Rivkah - Rebecca
Rivlah - Riblah
Rosh Chodesh - see Rosh-Hodesh
Rosh HaShanah - Jewish term for Yom T'ruah (literally: "Head of the Year"); an "appointed time" and "High Holy Day" that falls on the first day of the seventh month (Tishrei)
Rosh-Hodesh - New Moon, first day of the month
Ruach - Spirit
Ruach HaKodesh - Holy Spirit
Rut - Ruth, also Book of Ruth
s'rafim - seraphim
S'dom - Sodom
Sanhedrin - Supreme Court of ancient Israel; a tractate of Talmud
Sarai - Sarah
seder - ritual Passover meal (literally: "order")
sedarim - plural of seder
sefer - book
Sefer HaChinuch - mitzvah compilation written by HaChinuch (literally: "Book of Education")
Sefer HaMitzvot - Book of Commandments (also title of Book authored by Maimonides)
Sefer haMitzvot haKatzar - Concise Book of Mitzvot
sefer k'riytut - divorce (noun), bill of divorcement
Sefer Mitzvot Gadol - Big Book of Commandments, by Moses of Coucy (1st half of the 13th Century)
Sefer Mitzvot Katan - Little Book of Commandments, by Isaac ben Joseph of Corveil (2nd half of the 13th Century)
Sefer Torah - Torah scroll (literally: "Book of Law")
seifer - see sefer
sekhel - shrewdness (Yiddish)
Sephardim - Original meaning: Jews from the Iberian Peninsula; today's usage includes Jews from North Africa and the Middle East
Seudat HaAdon - Table of the Lord (The Lord's Supper; Holy Communion)
sh'chitah - slaughter, ritual slaughter
sh'eilah - test question
Sh'felah - Lowlands
Sh'khem - Shechem or Sichem
Sh'khinah - Presence (glory) of God
sh'ma - hear
Sh'ma - major Jewish prayer/proclamation quoted from Deuteronomy 6:4-9
Sh'mini Atzeret - annual Sabbath day following the seventh day of Sukkot; often called the eighth day of Sukkot
sh'mittah - release, discharge (of debts)
Sh'mitah - the Sabbatical Year
Sh'moneh Esreh - a prayer in the Siddur (also called the Amidah)
Sh'mot - Book of Exodus (names)
Sh'ol - Sheol (grave pit, a place awaiting eternal judgment)
sh'varim - several short unwavering sounds
Sha'ul - Saul, Paul
Shabbat - Sabbath
Shabbat shalom - Sabbath peace; hello/goodbye on the Sabbath
Shachrit - traditional morning service
Shaddai - the Almighty
Shadrakh - Shadrach
shaliach - apostle; emissary
shalach - divorce (verb)
shalom - godly peace; hello/goodbye
Shalom aleikhem - Peace be to you!
shamash - servant, deacon, synagogue official
shamashim - plural of shamash
shatneitz - kinds of things, stuff
Shavuot - Feast of Weeks; appointed time (annual Sabbath) 50 days from Yom HaBikkurim; aka "Pentecost" within Christianity (literally: "Weeks")
shebuat bittui - verbal oath
shebuat shav - false oath
Shechinah - see Sh'khinah
shechitah - see sh'chitah
shekel - a monetary coin (one-fifth of an ounce of silver)
Shelosh-'Esreh Middot HaRakhamim - "Thirteen Attributes of Mercy"
Shim'on - Simeon, Simon
Shimshon - Samson
shlichim - persons who are sent out, apostles; plural of shaliach<>
Shlomo - Solomon
Shochet - slaughterer
shofar - a musical instrument (trumpet) made from the hollow horn of an animal
shofarot - plural of shofar
Shoftim - Book of Judges
Shomron - Samaria
Shulchan Adonai - Table of the Lord (The Lord's Supper, Holy Communion)
Shulchan HaAdon - Table of the Lord (The Lord's Supper, Holy Communion)
Shulchan Aruch - Code of Jewish Law (literally: "set table")
Shunamit - Shunammite
Sibrayim - Sibraim
Sichon - Sihon
Siddur - traditional Jewish prayer book
Sila - Silas
Skeva - Sceva
suf - reed (Yom Suf translates to "Sea of Reeds" or "Red Sea")
sukkah - the singular form of sukkot; literally, a booth or tabernacle
Sukkot - Feast of Tabernacles (literally: "Booths"); an appointed time consisting of 8 days that fall soon after Yom Kippur; the 1st day of Sukkot is an annual Sabbath
t'fillin - phylacteries
t'kiah - a single unwavering sound
T'oma - Thomas
t'reifah - meat from an animal that is killed by a beast in the field
t'ruah - blowing (a series of short broken notes)
t'vul yom - bathed but ceremonially unclean until sundown
tallit gadol - prayer shawl having fringes on the corners (literally: "large tallit")
tallit katan - under-garment having fringes on the corners (literally: "small tallit")
talmid - disciple
talmidah - female disciple
talmidim - disciples
Talmud - extra-biblical writing of the "oral tradition"
Talmud Bavli - Babylonian Talmud
Talmudic - adjective referring to the Talmud
Tanakh - the Hebrew Scriptures (Torah, Prophets, Writings); aka "Old Testament"
taryag - six hundred thirteen (613)
Tavita - Tabitha
TB - Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli)
Tefillin - see t'fillin
Tehillim - Book of Psalms
tevul yom - see t'vul yom
Tirtzah - Tirzah
Tishrei - seventh month on the biblical Jewish calendar
Tishri - alternative transliterated spelling of "Tishrei"
Torah - teaching of God; Pentateuch; Mosaic Law
tractate - a treatise; a book (major division) of the Talmud
treif - see treyf
treifah - see t'reifah
treyf - any unkosher food (Yiddish)
tsuris - trouble (Yiddish)
Tuval - Tubal
Tz'dad - Zedad
tz'dakah - see tzedakah
Tz'lof'chad - Zelophehad
Tz'dukim - Sadducees
Tz'ruyah - Zeruiah
Tzaddik - righteous man
Tzadok - Zadak the priest
Tzara'at - leprosy
tzedakah - charity
Tzelek - Zelek
Tzipporah - Zipporah
Tzin - Zin
tzitzit - fringe
tzitziyot - plural of tzitzit
Tziyon - Zion; the Jewish homeland; a place near Jerusalem; land of Israel; Mt. Zion in Israel
tzor'ah - Zorah
tzva'ot - of Hosts (as in ADONAI-Tzva'ot)
Uziyah - King Uzziah (see also Uziyahu)
unkosher - ceremonially unclean; not for eating
Uriyah - Uriah
Ur-Kasdim - Ur of the Chaldeans
Uziyahu - King Uzziah (see also Uziyah)
Vadi of Egypt - River (brook) of Egypt
Vayikra - Book of Leviticus
Y'ho'achaz - Jehoahaz
Y'ho'adan - Jehoaddan
Y'ho'ash - Jehoas
Y'hoshua - Joshua, Book of Joshua
Y'hoyada - Jehoiada
Y'hudah - Judah, Judas
Y'kholyahu - Jecholiah
Y'vusi - Jebusite
Ya'akov - Jacob; James
Yafo - Joppa
Yah - sacred name of God
Yarden - Jordan
Yarov'am - Jeraboam
Yechezkel - Book of Ezekiel
Yehoshafat - Jehoshaphat
Yericho - Jericho
Yerivai - Jeribai
Yerusha - Jerusha
Yerushalayim - Jerusalem
Yeshayahu - Isaiah, Book of Isaiah
Yeshua - Jesus (literally: "salvation"); a variation of the name Y'hoshua
Yiftach - Jepthah
Yir'eh - provider
Yirmeyahu - Jeremiah, Book of Jeremiah
Yishai - Jesse
Yishma'el - Ishmael
Yisrael - Israel, Jacob's new name
Yitmah - Ithmah
Yitro - Jethro
Yitz'chak - Isaac (laughter)
Yoma - a tractate of the Talmud
Yom HaBikkurim - Day of Firstfruits
Yom HaDin - Feast of Trumpets; aka Rosh HaShanah; aka Yom HaShofar aka Zich'ron T'ruah; (literally: "Day of Judgment")
Yom HaKippurim - see Yom Kippur
Yom HaShofar - Feast of Trumpets; aka Yom T'ruah; aka Rosh HaShanah; aka Zich'ron T'ruah; aka Yom HaDin (literally: "Day of the Shofar")
Yom Kippur - Day of Atonement (the 10th day of Tishrei)
Yom Kippurim - see Yom Kippur
Yom T'ruah - Feast of Trumpets; aka Rosh HaShanah; aka Yom HaShofar aka Zich'ron T'ruah; aka Yom HaDin (literally: "Day of Blowing")
Yosef - Joseph
Yoshavya - Joshaviah
Yotam - Jotham
Yovel - Jubilee Year
yud - the Hebrew letter having the sound of the English "y"
Z'rubavel - Zerubbabel
Zava'ah - ethical will
Zavad - Zabad
Zich'ron T'ruah - Feast of Trumpets; aka Yom T'ruah; aka Rosh HaShanah; aka Yom HaShofar; aka Yom HaDin (literally: "Remembrance of Blowing")
Zifron - Ziphron
Zikharyah - Book of Zechariah
zonah - a harlot

Rev. 12-25-16

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